Other animals[ edit ] In many other animals a single posterior orifice, called the cloaca , serves as the only opening for the reproductive, digestive, and urinary tracts if present. Some parents allow their doctors to choose. The thick wall of the uterus is composed of 3 layers. The main part of the uterus which sits in the pelvic cavity is called the body of the uterus, while the rounded region above the entrance of the fallopian tubes is the fundus and its narrow outlet, which protrudes into the vagina, is the cervix. If an egg has been fertilised it will burrow into the endometrium, where it will stay for the rest of its growth.
The ovaries are held in place by various ligaments which anchor them to the uterus and the pelvis. Random House Australia, The egg is moved along the fallopian tube by the wafting action of cilia — hairy projections on the surfaces of cells at the entrance of the fallopian tube — and the contractions made by the tube. Excretory systems with analogous purpose in certain invertebrates are also sometimes referred to as cloacae. Once the child is born, the parents are faced with decisions that are often difficult to make, such as whether or not to modify the genitalia, assign the child as male or female , or leave the genitalia as is. Vagina The vagina is a fibromuscular tube that extends from the cervix to the vestibule of the vulva. A part of the wall of the fertilised egg, which has burrowed into the endometrium, develops into the placenta. Other animals[ edit ] In many other animals a single posterior orifice, called the cloaca , serves as the only opening for the reproductive, digestive, and urinary tracts if present. Some parents allow their doctors to choose. Ovulation occurs in the middle of the menstrual cycle and usually takes place every 28 days or so in a mature female. All the other female reproductive organs are there to transport, nurture and otherwise meet the needs of the egg or developing fetus. Development of the reproductive system In typical prenatal development , sex organs originate from a common primordium during early gestation and differentiate into male or female sexes. The initial appearance of the fetal genitalia looks basically feminine: Ovaries The ovaries are the main reproductive organs of a woman. Furthermore, differences in brain structure arise, affecting, but not absolutely determining, behavior. The SRY gene , usually located on the Y chromosome and encoding the testis determining factor , determines the direction of this differentiation. The egg, however, is usually viable for only 24 hours after ovulation, so fertilisation usually occurs in the top one-third of the fallopian tube. They have a number of finger-like projections known as fimbriae on the end near the ovary. If an egg has been fertilised it will burrow into the endometrium, where it will stay for the rest of its growth. The inner layer is known as the endometrium. The thick wall of the uterus is composed of 3 layers. It takes place from either the right or left ovary at random. If the fetus has testes, and if the testes produce testosterone, and if the cells of the genitals respond to the testosterone, the outer urogenital folds swell and fuse in the midline to produce the scrotum; the protuberance grows larger and straighter to form the penis; the inner urogenital swellings grow, wrap around the penis, and fuse in the midline to form the penile urethra. This is called ovulation. The two ovaries, which are about the size and shape of almonds, produce female hormones oestrogens and progesterone and eggs ova.
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